Linux and Centro

Nginx Proxy to HTTP and HTTPS
I recently purchased some KVMs from a good provider of mine and decided to migrate from VPS to KVM. In doing this, I set up some LXC containers, installed Apache on them and copied over my data. Tha


Email is the only reliable way of contacting administrators.

General contacts
General requests and comments about infrastructure.
Questions or comments about mirrors.
Account requests (see FAQ)

Please do not send general Linux questions or bug reports to these addresses. We do not have the resources to reply to them.

Please try the following sites for general Linux help:

Linux Foundation also offers training opportunities if you are interested in learning more about Linux, want to become a more proficient Linux systems administrator, or want to know more about how Linux can help your company succeed.

Mailing address

Please send any mail correspondence to the Linux Foundation:

The Linux Foundation
660 York Street, Suite 102
San Francisco, CA 94110
Phone/Fax: +1 415 723 9709

Supporting Statements from Xen Project Contributors


"AMD is focused on providing customers with choice and we view Xen as key to a healthy open source virtualization ecosystem. We are excited that The Linux Foundation is adopting Xen as a project," said Leendert van Doorn, Corporate Fellow, AMD. “As the host for the world’s largest collaborative development project, Linux, The Linux Foundation is in the most natural position to host and facilitate advances in a variety of open source technologies.” 


"The Xen hypervisor is the foundation of every successful public cloud service today. In addition it delivers virtual infrastructure to thousands of enterprise private clouds, hosting mission critical server and virtual desktop workloads," said Ian Pratt, chairman of "Now Xen is set to transform the security and manageability of PCs and mobile devices. It is important for such a strategic piece of software to be properly managed on behalf of the industry, and it's transition into The Linux Foundation marks an important milestone for the community and gives all vendors the confidence they need to be sure that Xen will continue to be developed and supported for the benefit of all."


“The Xen Project is essential to enabling ARM-based servers to improve data center efficiency,” said Larry Wikelius, Co-Founder and VP Software, Calxeda. “We’re looking forward to actively contributing to the future of the Xen Project and collaborating with our peers and The Linux Foundation on this work.”


"Cisco has been developing and offering consistent virtualized and cloud solutions across multiple hypervisors for enterprises and service providers and considers Xen to be an essential component of the Cisco solutions," said Saravan Rajendran, Vice President & General Manager, Cloud Networking and Services Group, Cisco. "Inclusion of Xen as an open source project in the Linux Foundation will bring collaboration and industry support to propel innovation and greater adoption."

CA Technologies

"Bringing Xen into The Linux Foundation will foster greater innovation around virtualization," said Jay Williams, VP of Product Management at CA Technologies, a member of the Xen Project. "This innovation will be of particular benefit to users of solutions such as CA AppLogic, which has always leveraged the power of Xen in order to provide greater value and flexibility to our customers and partners."


“As one of the founding members of the Xen Project, Intel has long been a leading contributor to open source virtualization. Intel strives to ensure that the Xen environment powered by Intel® Architecture delivers exceptional performance, scalability, reliability, security, and power efficiency. Adding Xen as a Linux Foundation Collaborative project allows the community to benefit from important open source events and initiatives,” said Imad Sousou, Vice President for Intel’s Software and Services Group and General Manager for Intel Open Source Technology Center.


“The Xen Project and the community that supports and participates in its development thrives from collaboration across a diverse group of companies and individuals,” said Wim Coekaerts, senior vice president, Linux and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle. “The Linux Foundation will provide a vendor-neutral forum for the project in which that collaboration can expand and deliver benefits for everyone.”


“The Xen Project is an important collaborative effort that Samsung supports,” said Sang-bum Suh, Vice President, Samsung. “We’re looking forward to working with The Linux Foundation and other members in the months ahead on the Xen Project.”

Verizon Terremark

“Open source software and collaboration results in market growth and increased innovation,” said Chris Drumgoole, Senior Vice President, Verizon Terremark. “Verizon Terremark is committed to participating in open source communities and collaborative development efforts that benefit the entire industry and we see the Xen Project as one of those priority projects.” 


Last week we learned what OpenStack is and what it does. Today we'll install it on a single machine and make it do stuff. This is not how you would set up a production server, but it's a wonderful fast way to get a testing and learning server running.

New Paper: How Engineering Leaders Can Use the Yocto Project to Solve Complex Problems

Last month we held the 7th Annual Collaboration Summit and as usual, there was a lot of interest in The Yocto Project. For those who don’t know, The Yocto Project provides a multitude of templates, tools and specific methods you can follow that make it easier than ever to create a custom Linux-based system for a product, regardless of the hardware architecture (read highlights of the new Yocto release here).

In a new Linux Foundation training publication titled How Engineering Leaders Can Use the Yocto Project to Solve Complex Problems, the Linux Foundation’s Director of Embedded Solutions, Rudi Steif, outlines some common challenges that plague engineering leaders who work with embedded products. As a 20+ year experienced embedded engineer, Steif walks you through some specific scenarios that are common across all industries and shows how the Yocto Project was design specifically to address them. Some of the challenges addressed in this new publication include:

If your organization is considering moving to Linux or you’re interested in exploring how the Yocto Project can make your next project easier, this new publication does a great job of taking you through the many advantages of using the Yocto Project for your embedded projects in the future.  

Download This Linux Training Publication

An Excerpt From this Publication:

The two principal approaches for building a Linux operating system stack for your product are the following:

Both of these options have their advantages and their challenges.  Let’s explore.  


Leveraging an existing Linux distribution that you can download and install on your architecture of your hardware is not supported, peripheral devices have no drivers, and other problems typically found with embedded systems? Furthermore, how do you scale the distribution to your needs? All of those distributions come with a package management system that lets you install and uninstall components. While they are handling the dependencies, it remains a cumbersome process at the end of which you will have to create a file system image to install on your target hardware when going into production.


Building a custom Linux distribution from scratch gives you the most control over your operating system stack, including customizing and optimizing the Linux kernel potentially for multiple architectures, adding device drivers, and more. However, it is not a trivial task and the tools traditionally available have been limited.

Enter:  The Yocto Project

The Yocto Project combines the best of both worlds. While the Yocto Project is not an (embedded) Linux distribution but creates a custom one for you, what it does provide is a set of common configurations to choose from. This includes a minimal system with console login, a system with a basic graphical user interface for mobile devices and even a system that is compliant with the Linux Standard Base (LSB), to get your team started quickly. After selecting your initial configuration and your target system, which can be an emulated target or actual hardware, the Yocto Project fetches all the necessary source code for the components that comprise the system, builds its own toolchain and then uses that toolchain to build all the other software components. Within a couple of hours or less, depending on your build system, the Yocto

Project creates bootloader, kernel and root file system images according to your configuration that you can either launch in an emulator or transfer to actual hardware.

After the initial build, components included in the system can easily be added and removed by modifying the build recipes, either by editing them directly or using a graphical user interface. Recipes are organized in layers that provide separation of configuration using a single setting allows building the same operating system stack for different target hardware.

 Linux distribution maintainers spend considerable time and effort looking for patches and new releases of components included in their distributions.

The Yocto Project can help facilitate the maintenance for your team in several ways.   

Download This Publication

Bash by example, Part 2
In his introductory article on bash, Daniel Robbins walked you through some of the scripting language's basic elements and reasons for using bash. In this, the second installment, Daniel picks up where he left off and looks at bash's basic constructs like conditional (if-then) statements, looping, and more.